People who sacrificed their lives to God

Hannah Marshman

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Hannah Marshman was the First Woman Missionary in India born on 13th May 1767 at Bristol, England. She was the daughter of John Shepherd, a farmer and his wife Rachel and the granddaughter of John Clark, pastor of the Baptist church at Crockerton, Wiltshire. Her mother died when she was eight years old. In 1791 Hannah Shepherd married Joshua Marshman. Hannah Shephard was possessed in an eminent degree those qualities of heart and mind which fitted her to be a help-meet to her husband. Three years after her marriage, in 1794 they moved from Westbury Leigh in Wiltshire to Broadmead, Bristol. In Bristol, they joined the Broadmead Baptist Church. The couple had 12 children; of these only five lived longer than their father. Their youngest daughter Hannah married Henry Havelock, who became a British General in India and whose statue is in Trafalgar Square, London.

Marshman
On 29th May 1799, Hannah and Joshua Marshman and their two children set out from Portsmouth for India aboard the ship "Criterion". Although there was a threat of a French naval attack the family landed on 13th October 1799 at the Danish settlement of Serampore, a few miles North of Calcutta. They had chosen to land here because the East India Company was still hostile to missionaries; they settled in the Danish colony at Serampore and were joined there by William Carey on 10th January 1800.

On 1st May 1800, Joshua and Hannah Marshman opened two boarding schools at Serampore. The two schools became the most popular in the Presidency and their son John Clark Marshman received his education from his parents. He was part of the growing mission family, eating at the communal table and joining with other children in mission life. As with all other mission family members he was encouraged to become a fluent Bengali speaker. Meanwhile, the Missionary Society had begun sending more missionaries to India. The first to arrive was John Fountain, who arrived in Mudnabatty and began a teaching school. He was followed by William Ward, a printer; David Brunsdon, one of Marshman's students and William Grant, who died three weeks after his arrival.

In 1800, when she first met them, Marshman was appalled by the neglect with the way in which William Carey looked after his four boys; aged 4, 7, 12 and 15, they were unmannered, undisciplined and even uneducated. Carey had not spoiled, but rather simply ignored them. Marshman, her husband and their friend the printer William Ward, took the boys in tow. Together they shaped the boys as Carey pampered his botanical specimens, performed his many missionary tasks and journeyed into Calcutta to teach at Fort William College. They offered the boys structure, instruction and companionship. To their credit - and little to Carey's - all four boys went on to useful careers. At one point, Hannah wrote about Carey, "The good man saw and lamented the evil but was too mild to apply an effectual remedy."

On 5th July 1818, William Carey, Joshua Marshman and William Ward issued a prospectus, written by Marshman for a proposed new "College for the instruction of Asiatic, Christian, and other youth in Eastern literature and European science". Thus was born Serampore College - which still continues to this day. Hannah herself went onto to found the local girls' school. Her husband, Marshman died on 5th December 1837 at Serampore, India and lies buried at the foot of this stone, in the same Cemetery with his beloved Colleagues, William Carey and William Ward. William Carey, Marshman and William Ward worked cooperatively and came to have the name "the Serampore Trio." Hannah Marshman died at the age of eighty on 5th March 1847 at Serampore, India.


The following Inscription to her memory is placed in the Mission Chapel at Serampore: "In Memory of Hannah Marshman, widow of Joshua Marshman, D. D. the last surviving Member of the Mission Family at Serampore, she arrived in this settlement in October 1799, and opened a seminary to aid in the support of the Mission in May 1800, after having consecrated her life and property to the promotion of this sacred cause and exhibited an example of humble piety and energetic benevolence for forty-seven years.

Serampore College

Robert Moffat

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Robert Moffat was a Scottish Congregationalist Pioneer Missionary to Africa and father-in-law of David Livingstone, born on 21st December 1795 in Ormiston, East Lothian in Scotland to poor parents. The educational advantages afforded him were limited, so, at a young age, he became an apprentice to learn gardening. Upon the completion of this apprenticeship, he moved to Cheshire in England to find an employment as a gardener where he was won to Christ through the efforts of the Wesleyan Methodists.

In 1814, he was employed at West Hall High Legh in Cheshire and he experienced difficulties with his employer due to his Methodist sympathies. With an intense desire to serve the Lord burning within him, he attended a missionary conference being held in Manchester and there he felt the divine call to carry the Gospel to the heathen. For a short period, after having applied successfully to the London Missionary Society (LMS) to become an overseas missionary, he took an interim post as a farmer at Plantation Farm in Dukinfield, where he first met his future wife. His fiance Mary Smith (1795–1870) was able to join him three years later, after he returned to Cape Town from Namaqualand and she actively assisted further missionary work.

Mary Moffat
At the age of 21 years, in September 1816, Robert Moffat was formally commissioned at Surrey Chapel in London as a missionary of LMS and was sent to South Africa. He arrived in Cape Town in South Africa in 1817. In 1819, his fiancé returning to Cape Town in South Africa, arriving from England, he met his fiancee and they were married. Together, they spent the next 51 years on the mission field, experiencing the many hardships and sorrows of that primitive area. Three of their children died in infancy and youth. However, five of the remaining ones remained in Africa as missionaries.

        In 1820, Robert Moffat and his wife left the Cape and proceeded to Griquatown, where their daughter Mary Moffat was born. The family later settled at Kuruman to the West of the Vaal River among the Bechuana tribes. Here they lived and worked passionately for the missionary cause, until they returned to Britain. In Kuruman, he formed one link in what was known as the 'Missionary Route', stretching from Port Elizabeth right up into Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Angola and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). During this period, Robert Moffat made frequent journeys into the neighboring regions as far North as the Matabele country. The results of these journeys he communicated to the Royal Geographical Society and even as in Britain on furlough (1839–1843) an account of the family's experience, Missionary Labours and Scenes in South Africa (1842) was published. He also translated the whole of the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress into Setswana.

Moffat Church
In 1841, David Livingstone arrived as a London Missionary Society missionary and took a shine to Moffat's eldest daughter, Mary. They were married on 2nd January 1845 and Mary accompanied David Livingstone on many of his journeys. Her health and the family's needs for security and education forced him to send her and their four children back to Britain in 1852. Mary insisted on joining Livingstone on his Zambezi expedition and sadly died at Shupanga on the Zambezi in 1862.

Robert Moffat and Mary Moffat had ten children, Mary, who was married by David Livingstone, Ann, Robert, who died as an infant, Robert, Helen, Elizabeth, who also died as an infant, James, John, Elizabeth and Jean. Their son John Smith Moffat also became an LMS missionary and took over running of the mission at Kuruman before entering colonial service. Their grandson Howard Unwin Moffat became a Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia. Besides his early training as a gardener and farmer and later as a writer, Robert Moffat developed skills in building, carpentry, printing and as a blacksmith. On his return to England he received a testimonial of 5000 pounds.

Monument of Robert Moffat
In 1870, after 54 years in Africa, he and his wife returned to England, where one year later his wife died. Robert Moffat continued to promote foreign missions the rest of his life. He raised funds for a seminary that was built at the Kuruman Station, where native students were prepared for missionary work among their own people. Robert Moffat died on 9th August 1883 at Leigh, Kent, near Tunbridge Wells in England and was buried at West Norwood Cemetery. At his death in 1883 the London newspaper said, "Perhaps no more genuine soul ever breathed. He addressed the cultured audiences within the majestic halls of Westminster Abbey with the same simple manner in which he led the worship in the huts of the savages."

LMS, Kuruman
The work of Robert Moffat was, as it were, the stepping stones which others used in spreading the Gospel throughout the Dark Continent. He opened many mission stations and served as the Pioneer Missionary in an area of hundreds of square miles. He translated the Bible into the language of the Bechwanas, first having reduced the language to written characters and wrote two missionary books on South Africa: Labors and Scenes in South Africa and Rivers of Water in a Dry Place. Robert Moffat’s printing work in Kuruman was supported by an iron hand press that was brought to Cape Town in 1825 and taken to Kuruman in 1831. Rev.Robert Moffat made use of it until 1870 when he retired after which it was taken over by William Aston and A.J.Gould and was in use until about 1882. In 1918 it was taken to the Kimberly Public Library where it remained, until return to the Moffat Mission in Kuruman in 1996 where it is back in occasional use printing commemorative documents.

“We shall have all eternity in which to celebrate our victories, but we have only one swift hour before the sunset in which to win them.” –Robert Moffat, Missionary to South Africa

Joshua Marshman

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Joshua Marshman, Missionary to India, born on 20th April 1768 in Westbury Leigh, Wiltshire, England. His father, John Marshman was a weaver, a man of fervent piety and his mother was a woman of superior mental gifts as well as of deep spirituality. At fifteen years old, a bookseller in Holborn, who had formerly resided in Westbury Leigh, proposed to John Marshman that his son should come to the metropolis and help in his shop. Joshua Marshman, who was passionately fond of reading, was now in a congenial atmosphere, but he soon found that his duties left him little leisure.

In 1791, Joshua Marshman married Hannah Shephard who possessed in an eminent degree those qualities of heart and mind which fitted her to be a help-meet to her husband. Three years after his marriage, in 1794 they moved from Westbury Leigh in Wiltshire to Broadmead, Bristol. In Bristol, they joined the Broadmead Baptist Church and he accepted the position of master of a school in Broadmead, Bristol and here he taught in a local Charity School supported by the church for five years. At this time he also studied at Bristol Baptist College. Eventually, he enrolled at Bristol Academy where he studied and advanced himself in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac. Through the Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Missionary Society, Marshman learned about William Carey's work in India and volunteered to join him and made hasty preparations to join the party about to sail for India.

Old Mission Chapel, Serampore
On 29th May 1799, Joshua, Hannah and their then two children set out from Portsmouth for India aboard the ship "Criterion". Although there was a threat of a French naval attack the family landed on 13th October 1799 at the Danish settlement of Serampore, a few miles North of Calcutta. Marshman, along with his wife Hannah, William Ward, Mr.Brundson, Mr.Grant and joined William Carey in Serampore. The couple had 12 children; of these only five lived longer than their father. Their youngest daughter Hannah married Henry Havelock, who became a British General in India and whose statue is in Trafalgar Square, London. 

Marshman and the Pioneer Missionary William Carey together translated the Bible into many Indian Languages as well as translating much classical Indian literature into English. At this time, Marshman also translated the Bible into Chinese and had an important role in the development of Indian newspapers. He was a keen proponent of the new developments in educational practice and was keen to encourage school teaching in local languages, even though the colonial authorities preferred that lessons be given in English.

Joshua Marshman was an accomplished scholar, linguist and theologian and was a prolific author and polemicist. After learning Bengali and Sanskrit, Marshman and William Carey published through the Serampore Press, the Bengali form of The Ramayuna of Valmeeki, (Vol. I-1806, Vol. II-1808). He also published A Dissertation on the Characters and Sounds of the Chinese Language (1809), a translation of Confucius (1809) and Clavis Sinica (1814). In 1818, Marshman started a Bengali newspaper Sumachar - Durpan (i.e., Mirror of News) as well as the monthly magazine Friend of India. In 1811, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, awarded Marshman an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree.

Significantly, on 5th July 1818, William Carey, Joshua Marshman and William Ward issued a prospectus, written by Marshman for a proposed new "College for the instruction of Asiatic, Christian and other youth in Eastern literature and European science". Thus was born Serampore College, which still continues to this day. Marshman also has the honor of being the first to have translated the Bible into Chinese. In 1821, the Serampore Press published the first translation of the Bible into Chinese, the work on which Marshman had spent fifteen years.

In the early 1820s, Marshman engaged in a polemical debate with Ram Mohum Roy concerning the deity of Jesus and the Christian doctrines of the atonement and the Trinity. The debate focused on Roy's Unitarianism, which Marshman and the other Serampore missionaries strongly disagreed. Marshman wrote an extended monograph on the subject entitled A Defence of the Deity and Atonement of Jesus Christ, in Reply to Ram Mohon Roy of Calcutta.

Bengali Bible
Marshman died on 5th December 1837 at Serampore, India and lies buried at the foot of this stone, in the same Cemetery with his beloved Colleagues, William Carey and William Ward. Hannah Marshman died in 1847. William Carey, Marshman and William Ward worked cooperatively and came to have the name "the Serampore Trio." Marshman's son, John Clark Marshman, an eminent scholar wrote a definitive treatment of the Serampore Trio. Marshman was appalled by the neglect with the way in which William Carey looked after his four boys, aged 4, 7, 12 and 15; they were unmannered, undisciplined and even uneducated. Marshman, his wife Hannah and their friend the printer William Ward took the boys in tow. Together they shaped the boys as Carey pampered his botanical specimens, performed his many missionary tasks and journeyed into Calcutta to teach at Fort William College. They offered the boys structure, instruction and companionship.

Tomb of Joshua Marshman

Ram Mohan Roy Statue

William Ward

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William Ward an English pioneer Baptist missionary, author, printer and translator was born on 20th October 1769 at Derby in England. He lost his father while he was a child and the care of his upbringing fell to his mother. Since left from school, he was apprenticed to a Derby printer and bookseller Mr.Drewry, with whom he continued two years after the expiry of his indentures, assisting him to edit the Derby Mercury. He then moved to Stafford, where he assisted Joshua Drewry, a relative of his former master, to edit the Staffordshire Advertiser and in 1794, he proceeded to Hull, where he followed his business as a printer and was for some time editor of the Hull Advertiser. In the autumn of 1798, the baptist mission committee visited Ewood and he offered himself as a missionary, influenced perhaps by a remark made to him in 1793 by William Carey concerning the need for a printer in the Indian mission field.

Ward Baptizing a Hindoo in Ganges
In May 1799, William Ward sailed from England in the Criterion in company with Joshua Marshman. Arriving at Calcutta, he was prevented to joining William Carey by the Government and was thereby obliged to proceed to the Danish settlement of Serampore, where he was joined by William Carey. In India, his time was chiefly occupied in overseeing the community's printing press, which was used to disseminate the scriptures, once they had been translated into Bengali, Maratha, Tamil and twenty-three other languages. Numerous philological works were also issued and he still found time to both keep a copious diary and to preach the gospel to the natives.

He married a widow of John Fountain, another missionary, by whom he left two daughters on 10th May 1802, at Serampore. Until 1806, he made frequent tours amongst the towns and villages of the province, but after that year the increasing claims of the press on his time and the extension of the missionary labours in Serampore and Calcutta, prevented him quitting headquarters. In 1812 the printing office was destroyed by fire. It contained the types of all the scriptures that had been printed to the value of at least ten thousand pounds. The modules for casting fresh type however were recovered from the debris and with the help of friends in Great Britain the loss was soon repaired.

Grave of William Ward

Significantly, on 5th July 1818, William Carey, Joshua Marshman and William Ward issued a prospectus for a proposed new "College for the instruction of Asiatic, Christian and other youth in Eastern literature and European science". Thus was born Serampore College. He having been for some time in bad health revisited England in 1818. Here he was entrusted with the task of pleading for funds with which to endow a new college at Serampore for the purpose of instructing natives in European literature and science.

He undertook a series of journeys throughout England, Scotland and also visited Holland and North Germany. In October 1820 he embarked for New York and travelled through the United States, returning to England in April 1821. On 28th May 1821 he sailed for India in the Alberta, carrying funds for Serampore College; as a result William Ward, Marshman and William Carey became known as “the Serampore trio”. William Ward died on 7th March 1823 at Serampore in India due to cholera and was buried in the mission burial-ground. “Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it.” – William Ward, English missionary and author.

Tomb of William Ward

Engrave of William Ward

Caleb Cook Baldwin

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Caleb Cook Baldwin was one of the first Presbyterian Missionaries to China, born in 1820 at Bloomfield, New Jersey, United States of America. Caleb Cook Baldwin studied at the district schools of that town, later entered Princeton Theological Seminary. A few years after his graduation, he married Harriet Fairchild.

He was ordinated in 1848, he along with his wife, was sent to the Foochow post, the Southern East part of China with the American Board of Missions by the Presbyterian Church. He served as a missionary in China and he returned to America only three times, in 1859, 1871, 1885. In 1895, he came back to spend his last days near his old home at East Orange, New Jersey, where he died on 20th July 1911 due to heart failure.

His monumental works were the Alphabetic Dictionary of the Chinese Language in the Foochow Dialect (language) (with Robert S.Maclay) in 1870 and the Manual of the Foochow Dialect in 1871. In connection with his wife, he translated much of the Bible into Foochow Dialect and prepared text-books such as Catechism of Christian Doctrine. He spent 51 years at Foochow in China. He had nine children - William James Baldwin, George Henry Baldwin, Charles Alonzo Baldwin, Stephen Wilson Baldwin, Emma Eliza Baldwin, Charlotte Eliza Ann Baldwin, Jesse Baldwin, Caleb Hyrum Baldwin, Mary Ann Baldwin.
Memory Stone